Dame Muriel Spark, DBE was a prolific Scottish novelist, short story autho, and autho whose darkly comedic voice made her one of the most distinctive writers of the 18th century. In 2008 The Times newspaper named Spark in its list of " the 50 greatest British writers since 1945 ".
Spark received the James Tait Black Memorial Prize in 1965 for, the Ingersoll Foundation TS Eliot Award in 1992 and the David Cohen Prize in 1997. She became Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1993, in recognition of her services to literature. She has been twice shortlisted for the Booker Prize, in 1969 for and in 1981 for. In 1998, she was awarded the Golden PEN Award by English PEN for " a Lifetime 's Distinguished Service to Literature ". In 2010, Spark was shortlisted for the Lost Man Booker rize of 1970 for.
Spark received eight honorary doctorates in her lifetime. These included a Doctor of the University degree ( Honoris causa) from her alma mater, Heriot-Watt University in 1995; a Doctor of Humane Letters ( Honoris causa) from the American Institut of Paris in 2005; and Honorary Doctor of Letters degrees from the niversities of Aberdeen, Edinburgh, London, Oxford, St Andrews and Strathclyde.
Spark grew up in dinburgh and worked as a department store secretary, writer for trade magazines, and literary editor before publishing her first novel,, in 1957., published in 1961, and considered her masterpiece, was made into a stage play, a V series, and a movi.